Microprocesses in implementing innovations: The role of person-innovation fit
The literature on innovation implementation has neglected individual-level processes that are critical to successful implementation. In this study, I present a person-innovation (P-I) fit framework to explain organizational members’ commitment to implementation and their implementation behavior, a term that refers to an individual’s consistent and committed use of a particular innovation. This model proposes that both commitment and implementation behavior are influenced by three types of P-I fit: (a) culture fit , the compatibility between the values underlying an innovation and the culture of the implementing organization, (b) value fit , the congruence between the innovation values and organizational members’ personal values, and (c) resource fit , the compatibility between resources (e.g., skills, knowledge, experiences) required by the innovation and resources available to organizational members. In addition, the model includes implementation climate as a contextual factor, broadly defined as the degree of organizational support (e.g., training, reward system) for the innovation. An empirical test of the proposed model involved two large Korean electronics companies that had implemented administrative (i.e., “Digital Culture,” intending a paperless office) and technological (i.e., “Six-Sigma,” a statistical approach to quality management) innovations. The results showed that value fit and culture fit strongly influenced psychological commitment, whereas resource fit largely determined implementation behavior. Specifically, organizational members’ psychological commitment to an innovation was strongly associated with value comparisons between person and innovation, where as actual performance of implementation behavior was dominantly predicted by availability of personal and situational resources. This study reveals the psychological mechanism of comparison between personal and innovation characteristics in multiple dimensions (i.e., values, resources). By doing so, the present study offers a detailed account of organizational members’ psychological and behavioral reactions to innovations. In a practical sense, the present findings suggest that organizations can choose a better implementation strategy according to the nature of the target innovation. When implementing innovations that change the task itself, organizations may need to focus on personal and situational resources that directly affect employee behavior. When introducing innovations that address the value system and interaction patterns among employees, however, organizations may need to attach desirable values to the innovation to create a positive evaluation for employees.
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